(i) STD: Subscriber Trunk Dialing
STD stands for Subscriber Trunk Dialing. Sometimes, it is called Subscriber Toll Dialing. STD is used to allow subscriber to dial trunk calls for a long distance outside a particular boundary without operator assistance.
The term STD (Subscriber Trunk Dialing) is used UK, India, Australia, Republic of Ireland and South East Asia. In USA, it is called Direct Distance Dialing.
The STD system was started in 1958 and completed in 1979. This system specifies STD codes for each area, officially called area codes. These codes should be dialed by the subscriber before the phone number to make a call.
(ii) STD: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Sexually transmitted Diseases are infections that are commonly spread by having sex, especially vaginal intercourse, anal and oral sex. STDs are also referred as STI (Sexually Transmitted Infections), and (VD) Venereal Diseases. These diseases are very risky because most of the STDs initially don’t cause symptoms. There is a greater risk of passing these diseases on to others.
Symptoms and signs of the STDs
- Ulcers on the genitals or around the genitals.
- Vaginal Discharge
- Penile Discharge
- Pelvic Pain etc.
Some STDs may affect the ability to get pregnant.
Causes of STDs
There are more than 30 different bacteria, viruses and parasites may be the cause of STDs.
- Bacterial STDs: Chlamydia, Gonorrhea and Syphilis
- Viral STDs: Genital Herpes, HIV/AIDS, Genital warts
- Parasite STDs: Trichomoniasis
Although STDs are generally spread by having sex with different partners without any protection but, some STDs can also be spread by non-sexual contact with contaminated blood and tissues, breast feeding or during childbirth.
The most effective way to prevent STDs is not to have sex. Talking about practical ideas are:
Use condoms Having smaller number of sexual partners (or only one) Some vaccination also decreases the risk of certain infection like Hepatitis B.
Note: Most of the STDs are treatable or curable. Most common infections like Syphilis, gonorrhea, Chlamydia, trichomoniasis are curable while Herpes, Hepatitis B, HIV/AIDS and HPV are treatable but not curable.