HIV: Human Immunodeficiency Virus
HIV stands for Human immunodeficiency virus. It is a deadly virus that causes Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) which is an advanced stage of HIV infection. It is a non-curable disease. This virus affects the human immune system and makes it very weak and thus one becomes more susceptible to common illnesses like influenza, cough, tuberculosis etc.
HIV destroys the specific white blood cells (CD4+ cells). If a large number of these cells are destroyed, the body can’t fight against an infection. As the infection progress, it turns into AIDS. AIDS is the condition of complete failure of the human immune system. The late last stage of AIDS is often complicated by infection of the lung known as pneumocystis pneumonia, severe weight loss, a type of cancer known as Kaposi’s sarcoma, etc.
AIDS was first observed in 1981 in the United State of America. It is believed that HIV infection was originated in non-human primates in West-central Africa and transferred to humans.
How to diagnose HIV in the human body
There is no proper way to test the presence of HIV in the human body because HIV is very small and cannot be isolated from the blood. There are different processes used in the different parts of the world to diagnose HIV. The most common test to diagnose HIV is ELISA (Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay) test.
Common Causes of HIV Infection
HIV is a retrovirus that has two types: HIV-1 and HIV-2. Both the types can infect you through HIV-infected body fluids like blood, semen and genital secretions. Some of the common reasons for HIV infection are as follows:
- You can get HIV from infected blood, semen or vaginal fluids during unprotected sex with a HIV-positive person.
- If you share drug needles with an HIV-positive person.
- An HIV-positive mother can pass this virus or infection to her baby during pregnancy, birth and breastfeeding.
Common Symptoms of HIV Infection:
The symptoms of HIV infection generally appear after a long period of time. Some of the common symptoms that HIV-infected people often experience are as follows:
- A Headache
- Muscle pain
- Joint pain
- A Sore throat
- Skin rash
- Swollen glands
Prevention of HIV Infection:
- Don’t share personal items like razors, toothbrushes etc
- Don’t share needles and syringes with anyone
- Practice safe sex such as use condoms if you are not sure that you or your partner is not infected with HIV and avoid multiple sex partners
For more information on HIV/AIDS go to https://getdailybuzz.com/aids-full-form/