GSM: Global System for Mobile communication
GSM stands for Global System for Mobile communication. It is a standard developed by European Telecommunication Standards Institute (ETSI) to describe protocols for second generation (2G) digital cellular networks. It was a replacement for the first generation (1G) cellular networks. The idea of developing GSM originated from a cell-based mobile radio system at the Bell Laboratories in the early 1970s.
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GSM is an open, digital cellular radio network operating in over 200 countries worldwide. It uses narrowband time division multiple access (TDMA) technology. It covers almost complete Western Europe and growing in America and Asia. It is not only used for voice calls, it can also be used for data computing and sending text messages. A user can connect his GSM-enabled phone with his laptop to send or receive e-mails, faxes, browse internet, check security etc.
The GSM standard operates on three different frequencies which are as follows:
- 900 MHz: It was used by the original GSM system.
- 1800 MHz: It was used to support the growing number of subscribers.
- 1900 MHz: It is mainly used in the US.
Data applications supported by GSM
GSM provides following functionalities when you connect your GSM phone with a computer system.
Internet: GSM provides the most ubiquitous and robust wireless data connectivity to access the internet.
Mobile Fax: With GSM, you can send and receive faxes to any place where GSM service is available.
Secured LAN access: GSM provides secured access for corporate LAN. It encrypts the air links and provides additional security for confidential e-mails and faxes.
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Advantages of GSM
- Since GSM service is obtained over 200 countries, so it provides worldwide roaming for its clients to roam throughout the world.
- GSM is extremely secured because its devices and facilities cannot be easily duplicated.
- It has an extensive coverage in all over the world.
- Clear voice calls and efficient use of spectrum.
- Compatible with wide range of handsets and accessories.
- Advanced features such as short messages, caller ID, Call hold, Call forwarding etc.
- Compatible with Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) and other telephone company services.
Disadvantages of GSM
- The biggest disadvantage of GSM is that multiple users share the same bandwidth. This may cause interference and due to interference bandwidth limitation occurs.
- The other disadvantage of GSM is that it may cause electronic interference. That is the reason why sensitive locations like hospitals and airplanes require cell phone to be turned off otherwise it can create interference with the equipments of hospitals and airplanes.