What Is Complaint In CrPC?

Are you curious to know what is complaint in CrPC? You have come to the right place as I am going to tell you everything about complaint in CrPC in a very simple explanation. Without further discussion let’s begin to know what is complaint in CrPC?

The Criminal Procedure Code (CrPC) serves as the legal backbone for the administration of criminal justice in India. One of the fundamental processes under the CrPC is the filing of a complaint. A complaint in the realm of criminal law serves as a formal representation of an alleged criminal offense, initiating the legal proceedings against the accused. In this blog, we will delve into what a complaint in CrPC is, the key elements it entails, the types of complaints, and its role in the Indian criminal justice system.

What Is Complaint In CrPC?

A complaint in CrPC is a formal document or written statement submitted to the appropriate authority, such as a police officer or a magistrate, bringing to their attention an alleged criminal offense. The complaint is the initial step in the process of criminal proceedings, and it sets the legal machinery in motion. It can be filed by a victim, a witness, or any person with knowledge of a criminal act.

Key Elements Of A Complaint:

  1. Identification of the Accused: A complaint should clearly identify the person accused of committing the offense. If the accused’s name is unknown, a description or other identifying details may suffice.
  2. Nature of the Offense: The complaint must specify the nature of the alleged offense, providing details about the criminal act, its time and place, and any relevant circumstances.
  3. Statement of Facts: It should include a detailed statement of facts outlining the sequence of events that led to the alleged offense.
  4. Witnesses: If there are any witnesses to the offense, their names and statements should be included in the complaint.
  5. Prayer for Relief: The complaint may conclude with a prayer for appropriate legal action against the accused, such as investigation, arrest, or legal proceedings.

Types Of Complaints Under CrPC

  1. Private Complaint: A private complaint is filed by a private individual, often the victim or a witness of the alleged offense. Private complaints are typically filed directly before a magistrate.
  2. Police Complaint: A police complaint is initiated by the police when they receive information about a cognizable offense, and they register a First Information Report (FIR) based on this information. This complaint is then forwarded to the magistrate.
  3. Complaint Case: A complaint case refers to a proceeding initiated by a complaint, and it is usually heard before a magistrate. The magistrate issues orders based on the complaint, including summoning the accused or directing an investigation.

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Role Of A Complaint In The Criminal Justice System

  1. Initiating Legal Proceedings: A complaint serves as the trigger for initiating legal proceedings against the accused. It prompts the authorities to investigate the allegations and take appropriate legal action.
  2. Protection of Rights: The complaint mechanism allows individuals to seek justice and protection of their rights in the event of criminal victimization.
  3. Legal Accountability: Filing a complaint sets in motion the process of holding individuals accountable for their alleged criminal actions, ensuring due process is followed.
  4. Evidence Record: Statements and evidence included in the complaint can become crucial elements in the subsequent criminal trial.


A complaint in CrPC is the first step towards seeking justice and redressal for criminal offenses. It provides a structured and formal means for individuals to report alleged criminal acts and set the legal system in motion. By adhering to the key elements and requirements of a complaint, individuals can ensure that their grievances are properly registered, investigated, and addressed through the established legal processes, upholding the principles of justice and fairness in the Indian criminal justice system.


What Is A Complaint In Law Of Crime?

Criminal Complaint is of 2 types. One is FIR (First Information Report) and the second is Private Complaint a Complaint which is to be given to a magistrate either orally or in writing, whereas the first information report is lodged at the police station nearby the place of commission of crime. According to s.

What Is Complaint And Fir In CrPC?

Complaint vs FIR – a complaint is a report made by a citizen to the police, while an FIR is a formal document prepared by the police based on the complaint. FIR vs complaint – an FIR is the first step in the criminal justice process, while a complaint does not necessarily lead to an investigation.

What Is A Complaint Under Section 190 CrPC?

Section 190 discusses the cognizance of offences by magistrates. (a) upon receiving a complaint of facts which constitute such offence; (b) upon a police report of such facts; (c) upon information received from any person other than a police officer, or upon his own knowledge, that such offence has been committed.

What Is Section 41 Of The CrPC?

A- Section 41 of Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 lays the conditions for when police may arrest without warrant. The rule otherwise requires police officers to obtain an order from a Magistrate along with a warrant authorizing arrest of a person.

I Have Covered All The Following Queries And Topics In The Above Article

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